Sulejman, Rejhan (2021) THE GENDER GAP IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES AND MENA REGION. International Scientific Journal in Economics, Finance, Business, Marketing, Management and Tourism, 8 (15-16). pp. 161-169. ISSN 2545-4544

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Many scientists have connected entrepreneurship with creation of new jobs, innovation and growth. However, for achieving sustainable development in employment and economic growth the participation of both men and women in entrepreneurship is fundamental. Even though the participation of women in the labor force is a basic human right, their engagement in entrepreneurship is lower than men. Gender stereotypes, lack of knowledge, lack of skills and experience are usually the factors that influence the low engagement of women in entrepreneurship. This paper aims to investigate the influence of entrepreneurship in men and women unemployment rate in transition countries and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in the period 2008-2016. An econometric analysis of panel data is established in Stata 12 for 33 countries, to examine if entrepreneurship can be used as a strategy to decrease unemployment in men and women. There is no universal method to measure entrepreneurship, so data collected from different countries can bring incorrect and misleading results. To avoid misleading results, we use TEA (total-early-stage entrepreneurial activity) and EBO (established business ownerships) for measuring entrepreneurship, from GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor), since GEM uses the same methodology in every country. The obtained results prove that TEA has no statistical significance in men unemployment rate while EBO is statistically significant at 10%. On the other hand, data also prove that both TEA and EBO are statistically insignificant in women unemployment rate. This study proves that entrepreneurship decreases unemployment rate in men, but only when it is an established business, however it does not influence the decrease of women unemployment rate.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Law, Arts and Social Sciences > School of Management
Depositing User: Unnamed user with email
Date Deposited: 05 Oct 2021 16:59
Last Modified: 05 Oct 2021 16:59

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